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What are the structural components of a building

What are the structural components of a building

Significantly there are two kinds of structural components present in a building structure. In that first one is sub structure and second one is super structure. Sub structure refers to the part of building that is constructed below ground level and the structural structure refers to the part of building that is above ground level.

Structural components or super structures are the primary load bearing segments of a structure, and each have their very own structural properties which should be considered. Such parts are

  1. Roof
  2. Parapet
  3. Lintel
  4. Beam
  5. Columns
  6. Damp Proof Course (DPC) 
  7. Walls
  8. Floors 
  9. Stairs
  10. Foundation
  11. Plinth
  12. Surface Finish

Steeloncall is going to explain all types of structural components of a building in a detailed manner.

  1. ROOF: The rooftop shapes the highest segment of a building structure.It covers the top essence of the structure. Rooftops can be either flat or slope dependent on the area and climate states of the region.

  1. PARAPET: External walls of a building structure are extended above the rooftop section which is known as parapet. The sole reason for parapet is to hold water from its passageway into the walls and a safety protection for people who utilize the top of a building structures.

Parapets are of three types and they are like

  1. LINTEL: The openings are given in the wall of a building structure to suit the doors or windows. The actual frame of the door or window isn't sufficiently able to help the heaviness of the wall over the opening and a different structural component has,in this way, to be presented. This is known as a lintel, and is comparative in character to beam. Climate Shades are commonly joined with lintels of windows to shield them from the climate components, for example, sun, rain, ice and so on.

  1. BEAM: A plinth beam is constructed relying on the type of the structure of the building and the nature of the soil. It gives extra solidness concerning settlements of the building structure and earthquake damages.

  1. COLUMNSColumns are vertical members constructed above the ground level. 

Columns are divided into two types: Architectural columns and structural columns. 

  • Architectural columns are built to improve the structure's feel  
  • Structural column takes the load originating from the slab above and moves securely to the foundation.

6. DAMP PROOF COURSE (DPC): Damp proof course is a layer of waterproofing material, for example, black-top or waterproof bond. Walls are constructed over the damp proof course. Damp proof course (DPC) avoids surface water from ascending into the walls. Dampness reduces the quality of walls and makes unhealthy living conditions. Likewise it influences the paint and plaster and increasing the cost of maintenance. Damp proofing layer isn't required where a plinth pillar is built, because the plinth beam as of now performs like a DPC.

7. WALLS:  Walls give the vertical enclosure for a building structures. Bearing walls carry gravity lo adjust, though shear walls have a significant job in carrying lateral loads due to wind and earthquakes. Concrete walls built in the basements of buildings structures are exposed to lateral soil pressure notwithstanding gravity loads- such walls are called basement walls. 

8. FLOORS: Floors are level supporting structural components of a building structure. They separate a building structure into various levels so that making more convenience on a given plot of land. The essential reason for a floor is to provide a firm and dry stage for individuals and for different things like equipment,  furniture, stores etc. Floor is generally referred to by its location area.

9. STAIRS: A stair is a grouping of steps that associates various floors in a building structure. The space involved by a stair is called as the stairway. There are various kinds of stairs like a wooden stair, R.C.C stairs and so on. 

10. FOUNDATION: The foundations of any building structure ought to be laid much below the surface of the ground, for the below four properties

  • To build the steadiness of structure against overturning due to wind uplift
  • To secure a good natural bed
  • To protect the foundation courses from atmospheric influences 
  • To decrease danger of failure due to settlement of soil

The foundation is the most basic part of any structure and numerous disappointments are probably due to defective foundations rather than any other cause. A good foundation must stay in position without sliding, bowing, upsetting or bombing in some other way. To accomplish this, the architect must ensure that the superstructure, foundation and soil act together

11. PLINTH: The segment of the structure between the surface of the surrounding ground and surface of the floor, quickly over the ground known as a plinth. The degree of the surrounding ground is known as arrangement level or basically ground level and degree of the ground floor of the ground floor of the building structure is known as a plinth level.

12. SURFACE FINISH: Surface is one of the significant elements that controls friction and transfer layer formation during sliding. have been made to consider the impact of surface texture on friction and wear during sliding conditions. Surface textures can be anisotropic or  isotropic. Sometimes, stick-slip friction phenomena can be seen during sliding, depending upon surface texture. Each assembling procedure, (for example, the numerous sorts of machining) produces a surface texture. The procedure is generally upgraded to guarantee that the resulting texture is usable. If necessary, an extra procedure will be added to change the initial texture.

Structural or Superstructure building components are specialized structural building products planned, designed and manufactured under controlled conditions for a particular application. A structural building part manufacturer or truss manufacturer is an individual or association consistently occupied with the manufacturing of components.


23 Nov, 2019
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